What Is Law Of Supply? Exceptions, Assumptions, Example

They start increasing their inventories with a view that price may rise in near future. We know, price is the dominant factor in determining supply of a commodity. As price of the commodity increases, there is more supply of that commodity in the market and vice-versa.

  • The chart below depicts the law of supply using a supply curve, which is upward sloping.
  • Agricultural products are exempted from the rule of supply as they are produced in response to climatic circumstances.
  • However, in certain cases, positive relationship between supply and price may not hold true.
  • If the economic environment is not a free market, supply and demand are not influential factors.
  • But in some exceptional cases where supply may tend to fall with the rise in price or tend to rise with the fall in price.

But in case of decrease and increase in supply the supply curve shifts upward to the left and shifts downward to the right of the existing supply curve. The slope of market supply curve can be obtained by calculating the supply of the slopes of individual supply curves. Market supply curve also represents the direct relationship between the quantity supplied and price of a product. It is observed that the producer seller sells less at low price.


With rising prices viz 13, 14, 15 the quantity of wheat rises from 30 to 40 kilograms. Thus as price rises supply extends and as price falls, supply contracts. A rise in price induces the prospective producers to enter into the market to produce the given commodity so as to earn higher profits. However, as the price starts falling, some firms which do not expect to earn any profits at a low price either stop the production or reduce it.

  • The supply of a commodity depends on the future expectation of price.
  • According to the law of supply, if the price of a product rises, the supply of the product also rises and vice versa.
  • The relation between price and quantity supplied is direct and positive.
  • The purpose of this article is to explore the assumptions, reasons, and exceptions to the law of supply.
  • This implies that the supply of a product increases with increase in the price of a product.

However, real-world supply decisions are influenced by a multitude of factors beyond these assumptions, making supply analysis a complex and dynamic field. It’s time to see the Law of Supply Graph, Table, its underlying principles, determinants, assumptions, limitations and examples. Auction can take place due to various reasons, for instance, a bank may auction the assets of a customer in case of his failure in paying off the debts over a period of time. Browse all our articles on finance, accounting, and economic topics. Explore our free career resources, including our interactive career map. Erika Rasure is globally-recognized as a leading consumer economics subject matter expert, researcher, and educator.

Measuring Price Elasticity of Supply

There are five types of supply—market supply, short-term supply, long-term supply, joint supply, and composite supply. Meanwhile, there are two types of supply curves—individual supply curves and market supply curves. Individual supply curves graph the individual supply schedule, while market supply curves represent the market supply schedule.

The above table indicates that when the price of the commodity rises, an increasing number of units are offered for sale. As we have seen from the study above that supply of a commodity varies directly with its price. But in some exceptional cases where supply may tend to fall with the rise in price or tend to rise with the fall in price. By seeing the diagram the conclusion can be drawn that when price rises supply increases and when the price reduces the supply reduces. In the figure above OX axis shows quantity of demand and OY axis shows price.

This behaviour of producers is studied under the law of supply. In such cases, the supply of a product falls with the increase in the price of a product at a particular point of time. On the other hand, if prices fall, suppliers won’t produce as much.

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However, if they expect the price to rise in the future, they would reduce the supply of the commodity, in order to supply the commodity later at a high price. Like the law of demand, the law of supply also follows the assumption of ceteris paribus, which means that ‘other things remain unchanged or constant’. If the economic environment is not a free market, supply and demand are not influential factors. In socialist economic systems, the government typically sets commodity prices regardless of the supply or demand conditions. In short, the law of supply is a positive relationship between quantity supplied and price, and is the reason for the upward slope of the supply curve.

Law of Supply: Schedule, Curve, Function, Assumptions and Exception

The law of demand is a fundamental principle of economics that states that at a higher price consumers will demand a lower quantity of a good, and vice-versa. It states that, all other factors being equal, as the price of a good or service increases, the quantity of that good or service that suppliers offer will increase, and vice versa. The law also assumes that the sellers do not speculate about the future changes in the price of the product. If, however, sellers expect prices to rise further in future, they may not expand supply with the present price rise. The law of supply reflects the general tendency of the sellers in offering their stock of a commodity for sale in relation to the varying prices. The supply of a commodity depends on the future expectation of price.

If the number of firms producing commodity increases, the market supply curve shifts downward. But lured by the abnormal profit the competitive firms enter the market to produce the same commodity. This raises the supply; likewise the competitive firms leave the market due to loss. Supply of a commodity https://1investing.in/ also increases due to the fall in the price of factors of production meant for its production. The prices of factors of production constitute a part of the total cost of production. Due to the fall in the factor cost production cost is reduced with reduced costs the supply of goods rises.

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It reduces the supply of the given commodity as the number of firms in the market decreases. Economists have studied the behaviour of sellers, just as they have studied the behaviour of buyers. As a result of their observations, they have arrived at the law of supply. Law of supply states the direct relationship between price and quantity supplied, keeping other factors constant (ceteris paribus). The law of supply and demand outlines the interaction between a buyer and a seller of a resource. Supply and demand says that sellers will supply less of a product or resource as price decreases, while buyers will buy more, and vice versa, until an equilibrium price and quantity is reached.

In a graph, price of a product is represented on Y-axis and quantity supplied is represented on X-axis. Supply curve can be of two types, individual supply curve and market supply curve. Individual supply curve is the graphical representation of individual supply schedule, whereas market supply curve is the representation of market supply schedule.

The law of supply summarizes the effect price changes have on producer behavior. For example, a business will make more video game systems if the price of those systems increases. The opposite is true if the price of video game systems decreases. The company might supply 1 million systems if the price is $200 each, but if the price increases to $300, they might supply 1.5 million systems. When the price of an item rises, sellers are eager to supply additional things from their stocks. However, the producers do not release significant amounts from their stock at a significantly cheaper price.

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